USING COLUMNS AS ROOM SEPARATORS

Open floor plans create a spacious, airy feeling that appeals to many of today’s homeowners.  However, without traditional borders, the living rooms, kitchens, and dining rooms often bleed into one another, resulting in an undefined sprawl.  A beautiful and effective solution to this problem is the incorporation of well-placed architectural columns.  Correctly used, columns delineate the rooms without disrupting the original architectural intentions.

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In this home, fluted columns with Greek Erectheum capitals have been used to separate the living room (unseen), a center hall, and the dining room, providing a more contemporary living arrangement in a traditional setting.

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On this Martha Stewart project, a wall was removed, and fluted columns with denticulated Roman Doric capitals and Attic (Ionic) bases were added to expand the space.

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Here, two sets of Tuscan columns separate the casual living room, a stair landing, and the kitchen, providing visual access to all spaces while still creating a sense of borders.

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438_Reduced.jpgFaux-finished wood columns and pilasters with custom plinths, Attic bases, and Empire with Necking capitals delineate the grand entrance from the formal living area.

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Octagonal columns and pilasters with Attic bases and denticulated Roman Doric capitals create an open hallway between living areas.

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Fluted denticulated Roman Doric columns on custom pedestals demarcate the entrance into different rooms.

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Columns and pilasters with Attic bases and denticulated Roman Doric capitals provide a perfect, subtle delineation between an entrance hall and the (unseen) living room.

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Greek Doric columns, with Doric flutes separate the stairway and the foyer.

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Wayne County Veteran’s Memorial Features Chadsworth’s Columns

Wayne County Veteran’s Memorial Features Chadsworth’s Classic Stone Columns

Text:  Courtesy of the Wayne County Veteran’s Memorial website:

www.wayneveteransmemorial.org

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After the Wayne County Memorial Building burned in 2004, the Trustees met regularly and consulted with veterans and interested citizens to determine future plans for the property. The land and 1925 building had been made possible by generous gifts from throughout the county, and the sole purpose had been to build a living memorial which would honor and forever remember those from here who had lost their lives in war. At a public meeting held in January, 2009, many veterans and other citizens expressed the opinion that this “hallowed ground” should continue being a memorial as it was originally intended. Later that year, after lengthy thought and study, the Trustees launched the Wayne County Veterans Memorial project in Goldsboro, NC.

Insurance proceeds from the destruction of the Community Building were used to bring this new project into reality without involving any tax funds. Early on, the Trustees engaged the services of Landscape Architect Jim Davis, originally from Eureka, NC, to work with them in formulating the vision and creating the design. The general contractor, D. S. Simmons Co., agreed with our desire to use local sub-contractors, and Landscape Design of Goldsboro, North Carolina is responsible for the landscape installation. Many extra hours and material were contributed by all involved in the project.

The emphasis on the design is formal enough to honor those who died to protect the liberties we enjoy, yet inviting enough to welcome visitors. Here all can find a place for rest, reflection, and solace. Our intent is that this space be actively used for veterans’ activities, community events, concerts, and visits by Scouts, schools, and other civic groups, thus continuing its role as a living memorial.

It is our hope that the Memorial honor those who have died, but also instill an understanding and respect for the sacrifices made on our behalf by past generations.

Completed Memorial Using Chadsworth's Columns

Completed Memorial Using Chadsworth’s Columns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

View the HISTORY of the Wayne County Veteran’s Memorial.

Also make your RESERVATIONS to tour the memorial.


PROJECT INFO:

COLUMN DESIGN NUMBERClassic Stone Custom

COLUMN DESIGN:  Classic Stone (Textured) FRP columns. Scamozzi capitals and Ionic (Attic) base moldings / plinths.

COLUMN MATERIAL:  Classic Stone (Pre-Finished Textured)

COLUMN SIZE:  14″ x 12′

PROJECT LOCATION:  Goldsboro, North Carolina

PROJECT COMMENTS:  The Wayne County Veteran’s Memorial in Goldsboro, North Carolina features (20) of Chadsworth’s pre-finished, textured Classic Stone columns. The columns are round, plain and tapered with Scamozzi capitals and Attic bases.


 

Visit more of Chadsworth’s projects at:
Visit our online store at:

 

THE CORINTHIAN ORDER

HISTORY of THE CORINTHIAN ORDER

 

GREEK CORINTHIAN ORDER

The Corinthian Order, named so after the city of Corinth, was infrequently utilized by the Greeks in comparison to their Doric & Ionic orders, and its origin is vague simply because elements of the Corinthian Order were scattered throughout designs from a plethora of buildings.  A fun myth of the order’s origin is described by Vitruvius about the Athenian sculptor, Callimachus.  It is said that as Callimachus walked by the grave of a young Corinthian girl, he noticed a possession-filled basket placed atop the grave directly above the root of an acanthus plant.  The leaves grew to surround the basket, which was topped off with a flat, square tile that protected the goods inside.  This event is mythically said to have been the inspiration for Callimachus’ invention of the Corinthian capital, and interpretations of the capital have been sketched to show what Callimachus saw.

The establishment of the Corinthian Order did not distinguish itself, immediately, as it was first incorporated within the Ionic Order capitals.  The first noted example, at the Temple of Apollo at Bassae, appeared centrally among a troupe of Ionic columns, and this specific Corinthian-esque column holds much significance because the acanthus decoration was often linked with Grecian funeral celebrations; and the column may have been built to portray one of the many characteristics of Apollo, which was Sudden Death.

Although the Greeks did not use the Corinthian Order as much as the Doric or Ionic, one of their earlier examples of Corinthian influence was at the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens; and arguably the most recognized model of the Greek Corinthian Order is at the Tower of the Winds.  Because of the capital’s unconventional layering of acanthus leaves in only one row with only one row of water leaf designs above that, the Tower of the Winds capital distinguished itself from the Roman version of the order and, in turn, has become synonymous with the Greek Corinthian Order as a whole.  The two are often interchanged in dialogue.

The Corinthian Order, similar to the Ionic Order, is classified by slender proportions and has a column height of 10 diameters, while the column shaft is predominately fluted (24) times around with the flutes being rounded off before meeting both the capital and the base.  Post-Renaissance, Corinthian columns were also seen having no flutes.  The column shaft terminates downward to an Ionic (or Attic) base that consists of two convex tori (an upper and lower ring) that are divided by a concave section called a scotia.  The Corinthian capital is undoubtedly the most discernible aspect of the order, but details in the Greek version of the capital varied greatly because the acanthus plant has many species that reveal different-looking leaf forms.  Standard, though, is the inverted bell-shape platform that is separated from the column’s shaft by an astragal molding.  A single tier of identical acanthus leaves decorate the lower portion of the capital, with an upper tier of water leaves supporting a square abacus that has (4) concave sides that curved outwardly to a point. The only Greek exception was the Tower of the Winds capital that had a square abacus with no curvature.  In some instances, on each face of the abacus, floral ornamentation – usually an anthemion or palmette accent – was centrally positioned.

Both Corinthian & Composite entablatures are the tallest of all the orders at a height of 2 diameters, and consist of 3 main parts (bottom to top):  the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice.  The architrave, in regards to detail, is identical to the Ionic architrave – having 3 fasciae that overlay on each plane and have little to no decoration.  The frieze was typically plain or either featured a continuous panel of sculpted ornamentation.  The uppermost part of the entablature, the cornice, was the most distinct section due to its increased embellishments.  It maintained the use of dentils but also incorporated the use of bracket-like decorations that were situated under the corona and evenly spaced along the spans of the entablature.  The cymatium was the top level of the entablature, and it extended past the frieze.

Overall, the Greek Corinthian Order displays elaborate decoration that reflects a sense of lavishness and luxury.  Corinthian columns are versatile because their style can adapt to a wide spectrum of applications – and according to Vitruvius – Corinthian columns represented the delicate and pristine nature of the female persona.  As so, Greek Corinthian columns are best utilized for projects that call for supreme opulence and prestige.

 

ROMAN CORINTHIAN ORDER

          Roman architects established a deep affinity for the Corinthian Order because of its elaborate decoration, elegance, and versatility; the order quickly became a Roman favorite and was vastly utilized for structures and buildings that were constructed to honor deities.  The Corinthian archetype the Romans fancied was seen at the Temple of Zeus Olympios in Athens, and it was this order that was predominately implemented during the Empire.

A fun myth of the order’s origin is described by Vitruvius about the Athenian sculptor, Callimachus.  It is said that as Callimachus walked by the grave of a young Corinthian girl, he noticed a possession-filled basket placed atop the grave directly above the root of an acanthus plant.  The leaves grew to surround the basket, which was topped off with a flat, square tile that protected the goods inside.  This event is mythically said to have been the inspiration for Callimachus’ invention of the Corinthian capital, and interpretations of the capital have been sketched to show what Callimachus saw.

Details within the Corinthian Order, in essence, owe their beginnings to their Ionic predecessors.  The order is classified by slender proportions and has a column height of 10 diameters, while the column shaft is predominately fluted (24) times around with the flutes being rounded off before meeting both the capital and the base.  Typically, a Roman Corinthian column is fluted, but there are several examples – one being the Pantheon – where the Romans left the shaft unfluted.  Post-Renaissance, fluting was considered optional for Roman Corinthian columns.  The column shaft terminates downward to an Ionic (or Attic) base that consists of two convex tori (an upper and lower ring) that are divided by a concave section called a scotia.  The Corinthian capital is undoubtedly the most discernible aspect of the order, and the Roman Corinthian version varied greatly from the Greek version.  Standard, though, is the inverted bell-shape platform that is separated from the column’s shaft by an astragal molding.  The usual Roman Corinthian capital consisted of two tiers (as opposed to one tier by the Greeks) of 8 acanthus leaves in each tier.  NOTE:  the species of acanthus leaves used on the Greek & Roman Corinthian capitals also differed.  The Acanthus spinosus was likely the model for the Greeks due to its spikier and taller characteristics, and the Acanthus mollis was likely the model for the Romans due to its more blunt leaf ends and shorter height.  Above the upper level of acanthus leaves, rise 8 caulicoli that form the third tier of leaves and encircle the capital.  The upper portion of the caulicoli transition into helices that are positioned to support the diagonals of the abacus that has (4) concave sides that curved outwardly to a point.  Each face of the abacus is adorned with a centrally-placed fleuron ornament.

Both Corinthian & Composite entablatures are the tallest of all the orders at a height of 2 diameters, and consist of 3 main parts (bottom to top):  the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice.  The architrave, in regards to detail, ranged in design – from generally plain designs to extravagant ornamentations.  The frieze typically featured a continuous panel of sculpted ornamentation.  The uppermost part of the entablature, the cornice, was the most distinct section due to its increased embellishments.  It maintained the use of dentils but also incorporated the use of bracket-like decorations that were situated under the corona and evenly spaced along the spans of the entablature.  The cornice showcased a vast repertoire of circular ornamentations and modillions, that were highly enriched with acanthus designs.  The cymatium was the top level of the entablature, and it extended past the frieze.

Overall, the Roman Corinthian Order displays sumptuous decoration that reflects a sense of lavishness and luxury.  Corinthian columns are versatile because their style can adapt to a wide spectrum of applications – and according to Vitruvius – Corinthian columns represented the delicate and pristine nature of the female persona.  As so, Roman Corinthian columns were favored for use on religious, civic, and imposing buildings; they are best utilized for projects that call for supreme opulence and prestige.


PLATES

(click on the plates to review the .pdf)

The Corinthian Order Layout - Plate The Corinthian Order Entablature - Plate The Corinthian Order Capital Layout - Plate The Corinthian Capital - Plate The Corinthian Base - Plate The Corinthian Order In Design - Plate
LAYOUT
ENTABLATURE
CAP LAYOUT
CAPITAL
BASE
IN DESIGN

Courtesy of the Institute of Classical Architecture & Art  |  Renderings by:  M. Gunnison Collins


CLASSICAL APPLICATIONS

•  Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (Greek)
view
•  Tower of the Winds (Greek)
view
•  The Temple of Zeus Olympios (Roman)
view
•  The Temple of ‘Jupiter Stator’ (Roman)
view
•  The Maison Carrée (Roman)
view

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THE TUSCAN ORDER

HISTORY of THE TUSCAN ORDER

The Tuscan Order, or what may be considered a simplified version of the Doric Order, originates in the temples built by the Etruscans, native Italic people whose civilization predates the foundation of Rome and at its height encompassed the areas around Rome known as Latium and Campania. The Etruscans were known to the Greeks and featured prominently in the early history of Rome before they were fully assimilated into the Roman Republic. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, which was on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, is among the best known Tuscan style temples.
             First described by Vitruvius, but not codified until the Renaissance, the Tuscan Order has a column height of seven diameters, widely spaced columns possible due to its having a wood architrave, and simple, bold molding profiles.  Etruscan temples had a stone base, but the upper levels were largely made of wood, mud, and terracotta, hence archeological evidence is scant.  To protect these vulnerable upper walls, the Etruscan temple incorporated a roof with a deeply projecting eave to shed water away from temple.
             Generally, the Tuscan Order is characterized by squat proportions and its simple base and capital. Its capital is composed of a square abacus, which is sometimes finished with a fillet, a round echinus, and a fillet prior to the neck of the column.  The neck is separated from the column shaft by a round astragal and fillet before the hypophyge curves down to the column shaft, which is smooth, without flutes.  A Tuscan base, from the Renaissance onwards, is composed of a square plinth and a round torus topped by a fillet before the apophyge curves up into the shaft of the column.  Both archeological evidence and Vitruvius, however, describe the plinth as round. Either plinth would be correct today.
              The Tuscan entablature was simply a wood architrave supporting the deeply overhanging roof, but Renaissance authors show the entablature with its typical three parts of architrave, frieze and cornice.  In some treatises the architrave is shown split into two fasciae, and in others, only one.  Some authors also show an ovolo instead of a cyma recta for the cymatium of the cornice.All in all, ornamentation is minimal, lines are plain, and proportions bold; all contributing to the simple strength conveyed by the Tuscan Order.  With this in mind, the Tuscan Order is suitable to more plain buildings or where an essence of firmness and robustness is desired.

 

Text by:  Christine G. H. Franck | Designer, Author, Educator

www.christinefranck.com


PLATES

(click on the plates to review the .pdf)

The Tuscan Order - Plate The Tuscan Order Layout - Plate The Tuscan Order - Entasis The Tuscan Order Pediment - Plate The Tuscan Order In Design - Plate
ORDER LAYOUT ENTASIS PEDIMENT IN DESIGN

Courtesy of the Institute of Classical Architecture & Art  |  Renderings by:  M. Gunnison Collins


CLASSICAL APPLICATIONS

•  The Temple of Piety
view
•  The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
view
•  Lower Order of the Amphitheater Arles Temple near the Church of S. Nicola in Carcere in Rome
view
•  Lower Order of the Colosseum
view

Tuscan Column by Chadsworth Columns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exterior Tuscan Wood Columns by Chadsworth Columns

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uniquely Irish | A Monthly Column by ICAA President, Peter Lyden

*Blog post courtesy of the Classicist Blog

Though the last glimpse of Erin with sorrow I see,
Yet wherever thou art shall seem Erin to me;
In exile thy bosom shall still be my home,
And thine eyes make my climate wherever we roam.

                        -Thomas Moore

Along with 15 fellow ICAA patrons and friends, I recently had the pleasure of experiencing Great Houses and Gardens of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, one of the ICAA’s travel programs. Our trip included many highlights, but the gracious welcome we received from the owners of the homes that we visited made an indelible impact on me. It was a true delight to learn about the history of these homes through each owner’s personal tales and family lore.

Ballywalter Park

Ballywalter Park

 

Ballywalter Park

Ballywalter Park

 

All of us on the trip came away with a greater appreciation for the “uniqueness” of classical architecture and interiors of the Irish Big House. We were struck by how the great Georgian estates differentiated themselves from their English influences, creating their own unique tradition.

 

Ballywalter Park

Ballywalter Park

 

Staff Quarters at Grey Abbey

Staff Quarters at Grey Abbey

 

Castle Ward

Castle Ward

 

These distinctive traits were observed in so many aspects of the Irish Big Houses, from interior design, to architectural details, to landscape features. Many Irish Georgian homes have severe fronts with scaled down ornaments. Flanking wings were often added to the central block at a later period to make these houses much grander in scale and appearance.

 

Seaforde

Seaforde

 

Seaforde

Seaforde

 

Inside each home was a magical surprise of fanciful mouldings and decorations like nowhere else. Mahogany imported from Cuba was a highly sought after commodity for the Irish. The wood landed in the city of Cork where Irish estate keepers had the first choice of the very best wood pieces for their furniture and decor. Seeing these fanciful wooden pieces in so many of the houses where we stayed was an absolute joy. The patterns in the furniture, such as goblins carved into tables, were exuberant and uniquely Irish, demonstrating what Desmond Guinness calls “Irish Fantasy at work.”

 

Dining Room at Hillsborough House

Dining Room at Hillsborough House

 

Hillsborough Castle & Garden

Hillsborough Castle & Garden

 

Hillsborough Castle & Garden

Hillsborough Castle & Garden

 

In the typical Irish classical style, staircases in many of the homes are located to the side of the structure. This is a feature that I particularly admired, as it gave the first hall clean, proportional, and classical lines reminiscent of Palladio’s Villas.

 

Killyreagh

Killyreagh

 

Castle Coole

Castle Coole

 

In Ireland it’s common to see two interior design styles within the same house. The Gothic style (à la Strawberry Hill) did have an influence on Irish homes, but only partially. This was the case at Grey Abbey, a classically designed Georgian Home with a drawing room converted to the Gothic style. While the Irish may have converted a room or a few rooms to a new style, they would not change the entire house.

 

Barons Court

Barons Court

 

Ardbraccan

Ardbraccan

 

Ardbraccan

Ardbraccan

 

Although the Irish Big Houses had their own tradition and unique aesthetics, the impact of great British designers and architects remains. The influence of Capability Brown is evident at many of the sites, where the houses were designed in natural settings with flower and vegetable beds that were kept away from the homes in walled gardens. Unlike many English estates, the homes that we visited have stayed “true to form” and have not added Victorian garden designs.

 

Wing at Ardbraccan

Wing at Ardbraccan

 

Marino Casino

Marino Casino

 

Russborough House

Russborough House

 

Many of the great British architects produced their best works in Ireland, without ever stepping foot on Irish soil. Sir William Chambers produced one of Europe’s finest classical buildings – the Casino at Marino – for James Caulfield, the first Earl of Charlemont. Additionally, James Wyatt who visited Ireland in one brief trip designed one of the most perfect, classically designed homes at Castle Coole. The famed Lafranchini brothers, known for their ornamental plasterwork, were revered in Ireland and even resided at Castletown until their deaths, as if they were members of the Conolly family.

 

Castletown House

Castletown House

 

Lodge Park

Lodge Park

 

Lodge Park

Lodge Park

 

The ICAA’s travel programs provide a wholly unique opportunity to experience classical and historic homes and sites firsthand. If you’ve been a participant on any of the ICAA’s travel programs, we’d love to hear highlights of your trip in the comments below. To view upcoming travel destinations with the ICAA, please visit www.classicist.org.