HISTORY of THE TUSCAN ORDER
The Tuscan Order, or what may be considered a simplified version of the Doric Order
, originates in the temples built by the Etruscans
, native Italic people whose civilization predates the foundation of Rome and at its height encompassed the areas around Rome known as Latium and Campania. The Etruscans were known to the Greeks and featured prominently in the early history of Rome before they were fully assimilated into the Roman Republic. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
, which was on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, is among the best known Tuscan style temples.
First described by Vitruvius, but not codified until the Renaissance, the Tuscan Order has a column height of seven diameters, widely spaced columns possible due to its having a wood architrave
, and simple, bold molding profiles. Etruscan temples had a stone base, but the upper levels were largely made of wood, mud, and terracotta, hence archeological evidence is scant. To protect these vulnerable upper walls, the Etruscan temple incorporated a roof with a deeply projecting eave to shed water away from temple.
Generally, the Tuscan Order is characterized by squat proportions and its simple base and capital. Its capital is composed of a square abacus, which is sometimes finished with a fillet, a round echinus, and a fillet prior to the neck of the column. The neck is separated from the column shaft by a round astragal
and fillet before the hypophyge curves down to the column shaft, which is smooth, without flutes. A Tuscan base, from the Renaissance onwards, is composed of a square plinth and a round torus
topped by a fillet before the apophyge
curves up into the shaft of the column. Both archeological evidence and Vitruvius, however, describe the plinth as round. Either plinth would be correct today.
The Tuscan entablature
was simply a wood architrave supporting the deeply overhanging roof, but Renaissance authors show the entablature with its typical three parts of architrave, frieze
. In some treatises the architrave is shown split into two fasciae, and in others, only one. Some authors also show an ovolo
instead of a cyma recta for the cymatium
of the cornice.All in all, ornamentation is minimal, lines are plain, and proportions bold; all contributing to the simple strength conveyed by the Tuscan Order. With this in mind, the Tuscan Order is suitable to more plain buildings or where an essence of firmness and robustness is desired.
Text by: Christine G. H. Franck | Designer, Author, Educator
(click on the plates to review the .pdf)
• The Temple of Piety
• The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
• Lower Order of the Amphitheater Arles Temple near the Church of S. Nicola in Carcere in Rome
• Lower Order of the Colosseum