How to Install Urethane Crown Molding

INSTALLATION VIDEO:  Urethane Crown Molding

A video guide from DIY Network

CHADSWORTH’S URETHANE CROWN MOLDINGS

VIEW ALL OF OUR URETHANE CROWN MOLDING DESIGNS

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How to Install a Ceiling Medallion

INSTALLATION VIDEO:  Ceiling Medallions

A video guide from HGTV

CHADSWORTH’S URETHANE CEILING MEDALLIONS

VIEW ALL OF OUR MEDALLION DESIGNS

To view more of Chadsworth Incorporated’s products, please visit:

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Also visit HGTV’s web site for more “How To’s”

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How to Install a Wall Niche

INSTALLATION VIDEO:  Decorative Wall Niches

A video guide from This Old House

CHADSWORTH’S DECORATIVE WALL NICHES

VIEW ALL OF OUR NICHE DESIGNS

To view more of Chadsworth Incorporated’s products, please visit:

www.COLUMNS.com

Also visit This Old House

www.thisoldhouse.com

 

THE COMPOSITE ORDER

HISTORY of THE COMPOSITE ORDER

The Composite Order is considered to be wholly a Roman Order.  Although the order emerged during the Empire age, it wasn’t until the early Renaissance period that it became a separate – the fifth – Classical Order of Architecture.  Some of the first examples of the Composite use was seen on the Arch of Titus (AD 82) in the Forum in Rome and later on the Arch of Septimus Severus (c. AD 204).  The Composite Order was another favorite by the Romans – and as so – Composite columns are regularly seen on triumphal arches.

The order, itself, is incredibly similar to the Corinthian Order, but the ultimate distinguishing factor of the Composite Order is the capital section of the column, which is deemed to be a fusion of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals.  However, there had been debate among classical architects such as Serlio, Vignola, Palladio & Scamozzi in regards to the best name for this order.  It has been identified as the “Italian Order,” the “Roman Order,” the “Latin Order,” and – of course – the “Composite Order.”  Due to Palladio’s urging of the name, “Composite” (Italian: Composito) – this is the term that has become the customary title for the order as a whole – as it logically makes sense that this order is a composition of the Ionic and the Corinthian Orders.

The significance of the Composite Order is connected to the notion held by the Romans of “conquering glory,” simply because many triumphal arches showcased Composite Columns; and it is known that the combination of Roman victory and subjugator’s annihilation was an extremely formalized event (as seen in the construction of large triumphal arches).  There is a valid link between the use of a new classical order to denote an independent order that did not precisely copy the architectural styles of conquered nations.  The Composite Order, therefore, can be directly correlated to both Roman victory and humiliation of the defeated, and many Renaissance authors have associated this order with the female goddess, Victoria – a winged figure holding a victor’s wreath for crowning the emperor.

The Composite Order is classified by slender proportions and has a column height of 10 diameters.  The column shaft can either be plain or fluted.  Fluted shafts consist of (24) flutes around the column and fillets in between them, with the flutes being rounded off before meeting both the capital and the base.  The column shaft terminates downward to an Ionic (or Attic) base that consists of two convex tori (an upper and lower ring) that are divided by a concave section called a scotia.  The Composite capital, although similar in certain aspects, is what distinguishes the order from the Corinthian Order, specifically.  It has the standard inverted bell-shape platform that is separated from the column’s shaft by an astragal molding.  The bell-shape platform is divided into three rows – the bottom two with identical acanthus leaves surrounding the capital.   Two small flower accents ascend from the upper row of acanthus leaves on each face of the capital that rest below what is, essentially, an Ionic capital.  The third, and uppermost, row of the capital is made up of eight volutes (as characterized by the Ionic Order) that are diagonally positioned to support the abacus at each adjoining angle.  The square abacus has (4) concave sides that curve outwardly to a point.  Egg-and-dart molding that is typical in an Ionic capital sits directly underneath the abacus and is part of the upper row of the capital.  Each face of the abacus is adorned with a centrally-placed fleuron ornament.

The Corinthian & Composite entablatures are the tallest of all the orders at a height of 2 diameters, and the latter follows the same details that are seen in the Corinthian entablature.  It consists of 3 main parts (bottom to top):  the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice.  The architrave, in regards to detail, ranged in design – from generally plain designs to extravagant ornamentations.  The frieze typically featured a continuous panel of sculpted ornamentation.  The uppermost part of the entablature, the cornice, was the most distinct section due to its increased embellishments.  It maintained the use of dentils but also incorporated the use of bracket-like decorations that were situated under the corona and evenly spaced along the spans of the entablature.  The cornice showcased a vast repertoire of circular ornamentations, or modillions, that were highly enriched with acanthus designs.  The cymatium was the top level of the entablature, and it extended past the frieze.

Overall, the Composite Order displays sumptuous decoration that reflects a sense of triumph and grandeur.  Historically, Composite columns were utilized to represent Victory, and they seemingly represent the blending of Wisdom with Beauty.  As so, Composite columns are best utilized for projects that call for supreme opulence, prestige, and success.


PLATES

(click on the plates to review the .pdf)

The Composite Order - Plate The Composite Entablature - Plate The Composite Capital Layout - Plate The Composite Capital - Plate The Composite Base - Plate
ORDER ENTABLATURE CAP LAYOUT
CAPITAL BASE

Courtesy of the Institute of Classical Architecture & Art | Renderings by: M. Gunnison Collins


CLASSICAL APPLICATIONS

•  Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus (Roman)
view
•  Thermae of Diocletian (Roman)
view
•  Arch of Titus (Roman)
view
•  The Mausoleum of Santa Costanza (Roman)
view
•  Loggia del Capitaniato (Roman)
view

Lescot Wing, the Louvre | Paris, France

Lescot Wing, the Louvre | Paris, France

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Somerset House | London, England

Somerset House | London, England

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Altarpiece capitals, St. James' Church | Goose Creek, South Carolina

Altarpiece capitals, St. James’ Church | Goose Creek, SC

 

THE CORINTHIAN ORDER

HISTORY of THE CORINTHIAN ORDER

 

GREEK CORINTHIAN ORDER

The Corinthian Order, named so after the city of Corinth, was infrequently utilized by the Greeks in comparison to their Doric & Ionic orders, and its origin is vague simply because elements of the Corinthian Order were scattered throughout designs from a plethora of buildings.  A fun myth of the order’s origin is described by Vitruvius about the Athenian sculptor, Callimachus.  It is said that as Callimachus walked by the grave of a young Corinthian girl, he noticed a possession-filled basket placed atop the grave directly above the root of an acanthus plant.  The leaves grew to surround the basket, which was topped off with a flat, square tile that protected the goods inside.  This event is mythically said to have been the inspiration for Callimachus’ invention of the Corinthian capital, and interpretations of the capital have been sketched to show what Callimachus saw.

The establishment of the Corinthian Order did not distinguish itself, immediately, as it was first incorporated within the Ionic Order capitals.  The first noted example, at the Temple of Apollo at Bassae, appeared centrally among a troupe of Ionic columns, and this specific Corinthian-esque column holds much significance because the acanthus decoration was often linked with Grecian funeral celebrations; and the column may have been built to portray one of the many characteristics of Apollo, which was Sudden Death.

Although the Greeks did not use the Corinthian Order as much as the Doric or Ionic, one of their earlier examples of Corinthian influence was at the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens; and arguably the most recognized model of the Greek Corinthian Order is at the Tower of the Winds.  Because of the capital’s unconventional layering of acanthus leaves in only one row with only one row of water leaf designs above that, the Tower of the Winds capital distinguished itself from the Roman version of the order and, in turn, has become synonymous with the Greek Corinthian Order as a whole.  The two are often interchanged in dialogue.

The Corinthian Order, similar to the Ionic Order, is classified by slender proportions and has a column height of 10 diameters, while the column shaft is predominately fluted (24) times around with the flutes being rounded off before meeting both the capital and the base.  Post-Renaissance, Corinthian columns were also seen having no flutes.  The column shaft terminates downward to an Ionic (or Attic) base that consists of two convex tori (an upper and lower ring) that are divided by a concave section called a scotia.  The Corinthian capital is undoubtedly the most discernible aspect of the order, but details in the Greek version of the capital varied greatly because the acanthus plant has many species that reveal different-looking leaf forms.  Standard, though, is the inverted bell-shape platform that is separated from the column’s shaft by an astragal molding.  A single tier of identical acanthus leaves decorate the lower portion of the capital, with an upper tier of water leaves supporting a square abacus that has (4) concave sides that curved outwardly to a point. The only Greek exception was the Tower of the Winds capital that had a square abacus with no curvature.  In some instances, on each face of the abacus, floral ornamentation – usually an anthemion or palmette accent – was centrally positioned.

Both Corinthian & Composite entablatures are the tallest of all the orders at a height of 2 diameters, and consist of 3 main parts (bottom to top):  the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice.  The architrave, in regards to detail, is identical to the Ionic architrave – having 3 fasciae that overlay on each plane and have little to no decoration.  The frieze was typically plain or either featured a continuous panel of sculpted ornamentation.  The uppermost part of the entablature, the cornice, was the most distinct section due to its increased embellishments.  It maintained the use of dentils but also incorporated the use of bracket-like decorations that were situated under the corona and evenly spaced along the spans of the entablature.  The cymatium was the top level of the entablature, and it extended past the frieze.

Overall, the Greek Corinthian Order displays elaborate decoration that reflects a sense of lavishness and luxury.  Corinthian columns are versatile because their style can adapt to a wide spectrum of applications – and according to Vitruvius – Corinthian columns represented the delicate and pristine nature of the female persona.  As so, Greek Corinthian columns are best utilized for projects that call for supreme opulence and prestige.

 

ROMAN CORINTHIAN ORDER

          Roman architects established a deep affinity for the Corinthian Order because of its elaborate decoration, elegance, and versatility; the order quickly became a Roman favorite and was vastly utilized for structures and buildings that were constructed to honor deities.  The Corinthian archetype the Romans fancied was seen at the Temple of Zeus Olympios in Athens, and it was this order that was predominately implemented during the Empire.

A fun myth of the order’s origin is described by Vitruvius about the Athenian sculptor, Callimachus.  It is said that as Callimachus walked by the grave of a young Corinthian girl, he noticed a possession-filled basket placed atop the grave directly above the root of an acanthus plant.  The leaves grew to surround the basket, which was topped off with a flat, square tile that protected the goods inside.  This event is mythically said to have been the inspiration for Callimachus’ invention of the Corinthian capital, and interpretations of the capital have been sketched to show what Callimachus saw.

Details within the Corinthian Order, in essence, owe their beginnings to their Ionic predecessors.  The order is classified by slender proportions and has a column height of 10 diameters, while the column shaft is predominately fluted (24) times around with the flutes being rounded off before meeting both the capital and the base.  Typically, a Roman Corinthian column is fluted, but there are several examples – one being the Pantheon – where the Romans left the shaft unfluted.  Post-Renaissance, fluting was considered optional for Roman Corinthian columns.  The column shaft terminates downward to an Ionic (or Attic) base that consists of two convex tori (an upper and lower ring) that are divided by a concave section called a scotia.  The Corinthian capital is undoubtedly the most discernible aspect of the order, and the Roman Corinthian version varied greatly from the Greek version.  Standard, though, is the inverted bell-shape platform that is separated from the column’s shaft by an astragal molding.  The usual Roman Corinthian capital consisted of two tiers (as opposed to one tier by the Greeks) of 8 acanthus leaves in each tier.  NOTE:  the species of acanthus leaves used on the Greek & Roman Corinthian capitals also differed.  The Acanthus spinosus was likely the model for the Greeks due to its spikier and taller characteristics, and the Acanthus mollis was likely the model for the Romans due to its more blunt leaf ends and shorter height.  Above the upper level of acanthus leaves, rise 8 caulicoli that form the third tier of leaves and encircle the capital.  The upper portion of the caulicoli transition into helices that are positioned to support the diagonals of the abacus that has (4) concave sides that curved outwardly to a point.  Each face of the abacus is adorned with a centrally-placed fleuron ornament.

Both Corinthian & Composite entablatures are the tallest of all the orders at a height of 2 diameters, and consist of 3 main parts (bottom to top):  the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice.  The architrave, in regards to detail, ranged in design – from generally plain designs to extravagant ornamentations.  The frieze typically featured a continuous panel of sculpted ornamentation.  The uppermost part of the entablature, the cornice, was the most distinct section due to its increased embellishments.  It maintained the use of dentils but also incorporated the use of bracket-like decorations that were situated under the corona and evenly spaced along the spans of the entablature.  The cornice showcased a vast repertoire of circular ornamentations and modillions, that were highly enriched with acanthus designs.  The cymatium was the top level of the entablature, and it extended past the frieze.

Overall, the Roman Corinthian Order displays sumptuous decoration that reflects a sense of lavishness and luxury.  Corinthian columns are versatile because their style can adapt to a wide spectrum of applications – and according to Vitruvius – Corinthian columns represented the delicate and pristine nature of the female persona.  As so, Roman Corinthian columns were favored for use on religious, civic, and imposing buildings; they are best utilized for projects that call for supreme opulence and prestige.


PLATES

(click on the plates to review the .pdf)

The Corinthian Order Layout - Plate The Corinthian Order Entablature - Plate The Corinthian Order Capital Layout - Plate The Corinthian Capital - Plate The Corinthian Base - Plate The Corinthian Order In Design - Plate
LAYOUT
ENTABLATURE
CAP LAYOUT
CAPITAL
BASE
IN DESIGN

Courtesy of the Institute of Classical Architecture & Art  |  Renderings by:  M. Gunnison Collins


CLASSICAL APPLICATIONS

•  Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (Greek)
view
•  Tower of the Winds (Greek)
view
•  The Temple of Zeus Olympios (Roman)
view
•  The Temple of ‘Jupiter Stator’ (Roman)
view
•  The Maison Carrée (Roman)
view

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